This Podcast episode is on the definition, pathophysiology, mechanism and sign and symptom-based on various organs affected by decreased perfusion from left ventricular failure.
A temporary, abnormal, sudden excessive, uncontrolled electrical discharge of neurons of the cerebral crtex.
Aortic valve stenosis is the narrowing of the orifice between the left ventricle and the aorta.
Fluid administed for all types of shock may include crystalloids(electrolyte solutions that move freely between intravascularand interstitial spaces), colloids (large-molecule intravenoussolutions), or blood components. Brunner and Suddarth 2010
Arterial Blood Gas is a blood test that measures the acidity/ pH, oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels of arterial blood. This commonly used diagnostic tool to evaluate the partial pressures of gas in blood as well as acid-base content. Understanding and use of blood gas analysis enables providers to interpret respiratory, circulatory and [...]
Arterial blood gas analyses -assesses a patient’s partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), providing information on the oxygenation status -the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), providing information on the ventilation status (chronic or acute respiratory failure, and is changed by hyperventilation (rapid or deep breathing) and hypoventilation (slow or shallow breathing); -acid-base status. - oxygenation [...]
ABG Components: pH = measured acid-base balance of the bloodPaO2 = measured the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial bloodPaCO2 = measured the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial bloodHCO3 = calculated concentration of bicarbonate in arterial bloodBase excess/deficit = calculated relative excess or deficit of base in arterial bloodSaO2 = calculated arterial oxygen saturation unless a co-oximetry is obtained, in which [...]
ABGs are drawn often when metabolic/respiratory acidity and alkalinity is suspected or is being treated. Often seen in chronically or acutley sick patients, these conditions include but are not limited to: Kidney FailureShockDiabetic KetoAcidosisTrauma & HaemorrhageUncontrolled diabetesAsthma Heart FailureChronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseDrug OverdoseMetabolic DiseaseChemical Poisoning
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is pneumonia that develops 48 hours or longer after admission to a hospital. HAP is the second most common nosocomial infection. -Medscape
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is pneumonia that develops 48 hours or longer after mechanical ventilation is given by means of an endotracheal tube or tracheostomy. -Medscape