The 2018 clinical practice PADIS guidelines are recommended by the society of critical care medicine for management of Delirium.
Open brain injury occurs when an object penetrates the skull, enters the brain, and damages the soft brain tissue in its path (penetrating injury), or when blunt trauma to the head is so severe that it opens the scalp, skull, and dura to expose the brain. Brunner and Suddarth, 2010
Cardiac Output is the amount of work the heart performs every minute to supply blood to bdy tissues in response to metabolic needs. It is a product of Heart Rate (Number of beats the heart makes per minute)and stroke volume (the amount of blood ejected during ventricular contraction). Reference: King and Lowery, 2019
Cholesterol has many physiologic roles. cholesterol is a component of all cell membranes and membranes of intracellular organelles. cholesterol is required for synthesis of certain hormones (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, adrenal corticosteroids) and forsynthesis of bile salts, which are needed to absorb and digest dietary fats. cholesterol is deposited in the stratum corneum of the skin, [...]
The term metabolic syndrome refers to a group of metabolic abnormalities associated with an increased risk of CHD and type 2 diabetes.
True knots and false knots can form in the umbilical cord. True knots occur in approximately 1% of pregnancies, with the highest rate occurring in monoamnionic twins. False knots (kinks in the umbilical cord vessels) are more common and have no known clinical significance. True knots arise from fetal movements and are more likely to develop [...]
A complete previa is defined as complete coverage of the cervical os by the placenta. If the leading edge of the placenta is less than 2 cm from the internal os, but not fully covering, it is considered a marginal previa (see the following image). Photo Courtesy of Medscape Medscape
The goals for administering Intavenous Fluids• To provide water, electrolytes, and nutrients to meet daily requirements • To replace water and correct electrolyte deficits • To administer medications and blood products
A temporary, abnormal, sudden excessive, uncontrolled electrical discharge of neurons of the cerebral crtex.
The presence of air bubbles in the venous or arterial circulation. Venous emboli cause foaming and blood-flow obstruction in the pulmonary artery leading to pulmonary hypertension.